Oriente Medio (Siria, Líbano, Jordania, Iraq)

En Irak, Jordania, Líbano y Siria, la COSUDE aboga por la protección y los servicios básicos de los refugiados y de la población necesitada, así como por una gestión sostenible del agua. Asimismo, fomenta el respeto de los derechos humanos y del derecho internacional humanitario y en Siria aboga por mejores condiciones de trabajo de las organizaciones humanitarias.

Mapa de la región Oriente Medio (Siria, Líbano, Jordania, Irak)
© DFAE

Los conflictos en Oriente Medio tienen drásticos efectos en la población: 

Como consecuencia del conflicto sirio, solo en Siria, más de 13 millones de personas dependen de la ayuda humanitaria. Más de 6 millones de sirios y sirias se convirtieron en desplazados internos y más de cinco millones huyeron a los países vecinos. En Irak, debido a la persistencia del conflicto, más de once millones de personas dependen directamente de la ayuda humanitaria; lo que corresponde a casi una cuarta parte de la población. Debido a las hostilidades, más de tres millones de personas se vieron forzadas a huir en el interior del país. 

Hasta ahora, la reacción de los países vecinos ante el gran número de migrantes ha sido de una extraordinaria generosidad, pero están llegando al límite de su capacidad de ayuda. A las autoridades libanesas, jordanas e iraquíes les resulta cada vez más difícil satisfacer las necesidades básicas de los refugiados y de la población local. 

En Irak, Jordania, Líbano y Siria, el principal objetivo de Suiza es contribuir a crear condiciones de vida pacíficas y seguras para los afectados por el conflicto y las personas vulnerables, reducir la fragilidad, así como prevenir y resolver conflictos. 

En su compromiso, la COSUDE establece cuatro prioridades: contribuciones financieras y en especie a organizaciones humanitarias y de desarrollo, implementación de proyectos propios (las llamadas acciones directas), envío de expertos técnicos del Cuerpo Suizo de Ayuda Humanitaria (CSA) a organizaciones contrapartes de la ONU, así como la promoción de la coordinación internacional y de la diplomacia humanitaria.

Cooperación internacional de Suiza

2013
Mill. CHF

2014
Mill. CHF

2015 *
Mill. CHF

COSUDE

     

Cooperación bilateral al desarrollo

32.43

29.63

14.60

Ayuda humanitaria

49.23

60.23

92.05

Secretaría de Estado para la Economía (SECO)

     

Cooperación y desarrollo económicos

0.52

Total COSUDE/SECO

81.66

89.86

107.17

Otros departamentos y oficinas federales

     

División Seguridad humana y Dirección de Derecho Internacional Público del DFAE

1.44

1.86

4.59

Otros divisiones de DFAE (ASAF, AIO, etc)

0.04

0.16

0.10

Departamento Federal de Defensa, Protección Civil y Deporte (DDPS)

0.02

0.02

0.03

Secretaría de Estado de Migración (SEM)

1.06

0.86

..

Secretaría de Estado para la Educación y la Investigación (SER)

0.13

0.27

0.27

Total oficinas federales

2.69

2.99

5.35

Cantones y municipios

1.77

1.32

..

Total

86.12

94.17

112.52

* previsto; total de los datos disponibles
Gastos de la COSUDE sin las contribuciones de programa a las ONG suizas
.. = sin datos | – = suma, igual a cero o suma < 5'000 CHF
a Sin las contribuciones multilaterales a la Oficina de Socorro y Trabajos de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados de Palestina en Oriente Próximo (UNRWA) de 11 millones CHF en 2013, de 18.8 millones CHF en 2014 y de 17.9 millones CHF en 2015.

Necesidades básicas y servicios

Servicios básicos para los refugiados y la población local

El objetivo es reducir la vulnerabilidad de los afectados por el conflicto y de las personas vulnerables, así como  prestarles ayuda y reforzar su resiliencia. La COSUDE hace posible la cobertura de las necesidades básicas y el acceso a los servicios no solo mediante la ayuda de emergencia, la alimentación y el alojamiento, sino también a través de la promoción de la educación, del trabajo y de los ingresos, del asesoramiento jurídico y de la atención psicológica.

A fin de poder garantizar los servicios básicos a los refugiados y a la población local, se ha de mejorar la capacidad de los proveedores de servicios del Estado y de la sociedad civil existentes. Además, se han de implementar medidas que contribuyan a prevenir los desastres naturales y de origen humano y permitan una respuesta rápida y adecuada. 

Saneamiento de escuelas en Jordania y Líbano

Al rehabilitar escuelas en Jordania y Líbano (con el apoyo del Principado de Liechtenstein), Suiza les ofrece a los niños de los refugiados y de la población local una educación escolar en condiciones seguras y favorables. El objetivo del proyecto es  reforzar también en los niños el sentido de pertenencia a la respectiva escuela e integrar mejor a los hijos de los refugiados sirios en las escuelas.

Protección

Respeto de los derechos humanos y del derecho internacional humanitario

Suiza se propone crear un entorno que ofrezca protección a las personas vulnerables y a los afectados por el conflicto. Para ello, busca el diálogo con actores estatales y no estatales que participan en el conflicto y se ven afectados por él. Ella promueve el respeto de los derechos humanos y del derecho internacional humanitario, participa en la búsqueda de soluciones políticas, ayuda en la solución de conflictos existentes y la prevención de nuevos conflictos. 

Atención psicosocial para los niños afectados por el conflicto

En el sur de Líbano, Suiza apoya un proyecto de «Terre des hommes» Lausana que presta atención psicosocial a los niños libaneses y de los refugiados. El objetivo es apoyar a los niños en el tratamiento de las experiencias vividas, p. ej., desplazamiento, separación de la familia, violencia, abusos, matrimonio precoz o reclutamiento por grupos armados.

Agua

Gestión sostenible del agua y sensible al conflicto

El suministro de agua e instalaciones sanitarias a las personas vulnerables y afectadas por el conflicto salva vidas. La escasez de agua en la región requiere una gestión sostenible del agua y sensible al conflicto no solo para lograr una producción de alimentos eficiente, sino también para prevenir los desastres provocados por el agua, ya sean de origen natural o humano.

Suministro de agua en el campamento de refugiados de Jerash

En el norte de Jordania, Suiza apoya la construcción de un sistema de alcantarillado subterráneo y la rehabilitación del sistema de suministro de agua en el campamento de refugiados de Jerash. Al mejorar el acceso al agua potable y a instalaciones sanitarias sostenibles, se eleva la calidad de vida de 25‘000 refugiados palestinos en el campamento.

Enfoque y contrapartes

Con un enfoque coherente y global (Whole of Government), Suiza conjuga sus fuerzas  y evalúa continuamente su impacto a fin de responder con flexibilidad a las condiciones cambiantes.

El compromiso de Suiza en Oriente Medio es implementado por las siguientes oficinas federales: Ayuda Humanitaria COSUDE, División Seguridad Humana (DSH), Secretaría de Estado para la Economía (SECO), Secretaría de Estado de Migración (SEM), Departamento Federal de Defensa, Protección de la Población y Deportes (DDPD). Además, Suiza utiliza los instrumentos de que dispone para gestionar  las relaciones exteriores y se vale de su rol en organismos internacionales. Ella trabaja en estrecha colaboración con las autoridades locales, otros países donantes y organizaciones internacionales y multilaterales.

Todos los programas incorporan un enfoque sensible al conflicto, se basan en los principios de buena gobernanza y tienen en cuenta cuestiones de género. 

Las contrapartes principales de Suiza en la región son: 

  • Autoridades locales a nivel nacional y regional
  • Organizaciones internacionales: Comité Internacional de la Cruz Roja (CICR)
  • Organizaciones multilaterales : Oficina para la coordinación de asuntos humanitarios (OCHA), Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados (ACNUR), Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia  (UNICEF),  Agencia de la ONU para los Refugiados de Palestina en Oriente Próximo (UNRWA)
  • Organizaciones de la sociedad civil local: Comité para el diálogo palestino-libanés, Comité de coordinación de las ONGs en Irak, entre otras.
  • ONGs internacionales: Terre des hommes, MEDAIR, entre otras. 

Información contextual sobre Oriente Próximo

Cifras y hechos
  Jordania Líbano Siria Irak  
Superficie 89'342 10'400 185'000 438’317 km2
Población 6.318 4.425 22.399 32.578 mill.
Índice de crecimiento demográfico anual (desde 1990) 2.2 1.0 2.0 2.5 %
Esperanza de vida al nacer: mujeres / hombres 75.4 / 72.1 82.0 / 77.8 77.7 / 71.9 73.0 / 65.7 años
Índice de analfabetismo en adultos: mujeres / hombres 6.1 / 2.3 .. 22.3 / 9.7 28.8 / 14.0 %
Producto interno bruto (BIP) per cápita 4'909.0 9'705.4 .. 6'625.2 US$
Porcentaje de la población con menos de 2 US$ diarios 1.6 .. .. .. %
Cifras y hechos

.. = sin datos

Fuente: World Development Indicators 2014 del Banco Mundial

Enlaces

  • Information from the FDFA
    Representation website, travel advice (in DE, FR and IT only) and information about life in the country and bilateral relations

Switzerland and Syria Switzerland and Lebanon

Switzerland and Jordan

Switzerland and Iraq

  • Travel information provided by fairunterwegs.org (de)
    Information provided by the travel portal, fairunterwegs.org, which is supported by the SDC, about fairness in interacting with people and nature while travelling

Siria

Líbano

Jordania

Irak

  • Información contextual de la BBC sobre los distintos países:

Siria

Líbano

Jordania

Irak

Proyectos actuales

Objeto 1 – 2 de 2

  • 1

Contribution to UNRWA's Programme Budget 2017-2020

01.01.2017 - 31.12.2020

UNRWA is one of Switzerland’s key multilateral partners in the Middle East, due to its regional outreach and its important contributions towards stability and peace in the region. UNRWA overall delivers assistance and protection services to 5.3 million registered Palestine refugees. Under its Programme Budget, UNRWA ensures universal access to quality primary health care and to basic education to Palestine refugees. It also provides targeted relief and social services to needy poor refugees.


Swiss experts to UN agencies in the frame of the regional crises in the Middle East

24.02.2016 - 31.12.2017

The Middle East is currently contending with two L3 crises:  Iraq and Syria. Over 20 million people need humanitarian assistance: refugees, lDPs, host communities. In line with the Swiss Cooperation Strategy 2015-

2018, SHA experts provide technical support & strategic advice to UN agencies, contributing to a strengthened, coordinated response. The deployed experts allow Switzerland to expand its operational engagement and humanitarian presence in the region, including in contexts where SDC has no office (Iraq and Syria).

Objeto 1 – 2 de 2

  • 1

Objeto 1 – 12 de 13

Rehabilitación de escuelas en el norte de Líbano

Las escuelas rehabilitadas permiten a los alumnos, tanto libaneses como sirios, seguir las clases en las mejores condiciones. © COSUDE

16.11.2015 - 31.07.2018

Tras la rehabilitación de las 28 primeras escuelas en el norte de Líbano, la COSUDE amplía sus trabajos a otros 24 establecimientos escolares en la misma región. Las obras, llevadas a cabo en colaboración con las autoridades libanesas, permiten a estas últimas hacer frente a la llegada masiva de hijos de refugiados provenientes de Siria.

Región/País Tema Período Presupuesto
Líbano
Asistencia humanitaria
Educación
Educación formal de base a nivel de escuela primaria y primer ciclo de educación secundaria
Reconstrucción y Rehabilitación
EDUCACIÓN
AYUDA HUMANITARIA
MULTISECTORIAL
Educación primaria
Ayuda a la reconstrucción y rehabilitación
Ayuda multisectorial

16.11.2015 - 31.07.2018


CHF 3'690'000



LEB – Improved Water Resources Monitoring and Integrated Water Resources Management in the North of Lebanon

01.07.2017 - 31.08.2020

For over five years now, the Syria crisis is continuing to affect middle-income neighbouring countries. As a result, Lebanon hosts the highest number of refugees per capita in the world. The weak governance of the Government has been worsened with the burden of the refugees from Syria and Palestine who use the same overstretched infrastructure and public services. The project aims at enabling the water authorities to better manage the water sector for the benefit of the vulnerable communities in the North of the country.


Contribution to UNRWA's Programme Budget 2017-2020

01.01.2017 - 31.12.2020

UNRWA is one of Switzerland’s key multilateral partners in the Middle East, due to its regional outreach and its important contributions towards stability and peace in the region. UNRWA overall delivers assistance and protection services to 5.3 million registered Palestine refugees. Under its Programme Budget, UNRWA ensures universal access to quality primary health care and to basic education to Palestine refugees. It also provides targeted relief and social services to needy poor refugees.


Tahaddi Community Empowerment Programme

01.08.2016 - 30.09.2019

The shantytowns in southern Beirut, Hay Al-Gharbeh and Sabra Al Horsh, are home to more than 10'000 marginalized people, amongst them also Syrians, who fled their country. In the absence of public services, the local NGO Tahaddi seeks to alleviate the dire conditions for the inhabitants through social services , psychological support, health and education programs. Besides supporting the ongoing program, the SDC contribution also strengthens Tahaddi's organisational development.


LEB Ghassan Kanafani Cultural Foundation (GKCF) Support to Centers in Palestine Refugee Camps – BNS & PRO

01.04.2016 - 31.03.2019

Palestine Refugees have no access to public schools in Lebanon. UNRWA runs 69 schools and 2 vocational education centers that cannot meet all the needs of an increasingly young population. Non-profits play a key role in complementing UNRWA’s services, particularly in early childhood. Further, many schools lack the necessary infrastructure, equipment and staff to support children with special needs. The main objective of the project is to improve the lives of Palestine Refugee (and other nationality) children and integrate those with disabilities in the regular education system.


Swiss experts to UN agencies in the frame of the regional crises in the Middle East

24.02.2016 - 31.12.2017

The Middle East is currently contending with two L3 crises:  Iraq and Syria. Over 20 million people need humanitarian assistance: refugees, lDPs, host communities. In line with the Swiss Cooperation Strategy 2015-

2018, SHA experts provide technical support & strategic advice to UN agencies, contributing to a strengthened, coordinated response. The deployed experts allow Switzerland to expand its operational engagement and humanitarian presence in the region, including in contexts where SDC has no office (Iraq and Syria).


LEB- UN-Habitat: Addressing the impacts of the Syrian Refugee Crisis in Tripoli and Tyr

01.12.2015 - 31.05.2018

With over 1 million Syrian refugees against a population of around 4.2 million, Lebanon now has the highest number of refugees per capita in the world. Around 35 % of those refugees are hosted in the four largest cities: Tripoli, Beirut, Saida and Tyr which accommodate 50% of the total population in Lebanon. Priority needs are shelter, food and livelihoods. UN-Habitat in Lebanon addresses the urban challenges and needs in these cities.


LEB- UNDP -Improving Living Conditions in Palestinian Gatherings

01.10.2015 - 30.09.2018

In Lebanon, 455'000 Palestine refugees are officially registered with the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA). Some 250'000 of them live in 12 official camps; others live in and around cities and towns, often in areas called gatherings. There are 42 such gatherings in Lebanon where over 140'000 Palestine refugees live (as well as poor Lebanese and Palestine refugees from Syria). Through this project, SDC aims at contributing to improved living conditions in these gatherings by providing basic urban services.


LEB Direct Action - contribution to improved access to water and sanitation services in Bekaa Valley

01.10.2015 - 31.03.2019

The delivery of Water and Sanitation services by the Bekaa Water Establishment (BWE) has been partly disrupted since the massive arrival of refugees from Syria, due to a high demand on an establishment whose structure and daily operation procedures are inefficient. SDC intends to support the much needed development of the BWE to improve the quality of its services to all, Lebanese host communities as well as refugee populations.


LEB, TdH, Protection of the Most Vulnerable Children Affected by the Syria crisis in South Lebanon

01.01.2015 - 31.12.2017

Since 2011 almost 1.2 million Syrians crossed into Lebanon seeking safety and shelter. Especially children struggle with many challenges during displacement including family separation, exposure to physical and/or psychological violence, abuse, child labour and exploitation, early marriage, and recruitment by armed groups. Through this project, Terre des hommes builds and expands on its regular interventions in South Lebanon by including Syrian refugee children and strengthening capacities of local child protection actors.


Decent work for migrants in the Middle East

01.01.2015 - 31.12.2018

The Middle East attracts high numbers of migrants from South/South East Asia. While migrants constitute an important contribution to the Gulf State economies and the development of their countries of origin, they remain vulnerable to exploitation and abuse along the migration chain. This programme builds on gains made during its first phase and seeks to improve legal frameworks and their implementation in favour of decent work conditions for migrants. The approach combines operational support to migrants, capacity building of national and civil society actors with regional and global policy dialogue efforts.


Improved Government Response to Crisis and Major Civilian Operations

01.12.2014 - 31.12.2017

Lebanon is facing political instability, tremendous security concerns, and a refugee crisis, in addition to being vulnerable to natural hazards and water scarcity. The Lebanese Government is requesting continued support to improve its emergency, preparedness and response to man-made and natural disasters and crisis. Based on DRR achievements to date, SDC through UNDP will support the capacities of the Government in fulfilling remaining interventions stipulated in the National Response Plan, at the i) National level - Mobile Operation Room (MOR) and field assessment team ii) Sectoral level - risk assessment, response plans and crisis management cell at Ministry of Energy and Water, Public Works and Transportation and Telecommunication, and iii) Local level - capacity building of three regional governorates and three districts.

Objeto 1 – 12 de 13

Objeto 1 – 1 de 1

  • 1

Swiss experts to UN agencies in the frame of the regional crises in the Middle East

24.02.2016 - 31.12.2017

The Middle East is currently contending with two L3 crises:  Iraq and Syria. Over 20 million people need humanitarian assistance: refugees, lDPs, host communities. In line with the Swiss Cooperation Strategy 2015-

2018, SHA experts provide technical support & strategic advice to UN agencies, contributing to a strengthened, coordinated response. The deployed experts allow Switzerland to expand its operational engagement and humanitarian presence in the region, including in contexts where SDC has no office (Iraq and Syria).

Objeto 1 – 1 de 1

  • 1

Objeto 1 – 9 de 9

  • 1

JOR Sanitation Solutions for Underserved Communities in Jordan

01.07.2017 - 30.06.2027

In Jordan water supply from conventional water sources has come to its limits. Appropriate sanitation solutions will minimize the risks for public health and reduce the hazards of environmental pollution. Additionally these will cut the costs for sanitation operations and free resources for other purposes. Thus the project will contribute to the much needed decoupling of population and economic growth from resource consumption and pollution of the environment.


Contribution to UNRWA's Programme Budget 2017-2020

01.01.2017 - 31.12.2020

UNRWA is one of Switzerland’s key multilateral partners in the Middle East, due to its regional outreach and its important contributions towards stability and peace in the region. UNRWA overall delivers assistance and protection services to 5.3 million registered Palestine refugees. Under its Programme Budget, UNRWA ensures universal access to quality primary health care and to basic education to Palestine refugees. It also provides targeted relief and social services to needy poor refugees.


JOR - RSS Mapping Aquifer Vulnerability

01.09.2016 - 28.02.2018

The large influx of refugees into Jordan has increased the volume of solid waste going into landfills. A major problem experienced at the landfills is the loss of leachate, and the subsequent potential contamination of the groundwater. The municipalities in Jordan are expanding the current landfills to adapt to the unprecedented solid waste generation. The preparation of the vulnerability maps for these areas will help mitigate against the contamination of the groundwater. Five sites have been chosen for this purpose.


Rehabiltiation of public schools accomodating Syrian refugee children

01.04.2016 - 31.07.2019

Education is one of the public sectors particularly under pressure due to the influx of refugees. There are currently 143,000 school-aged Syrian refugees enrolled in public schools in Jordan, another approx. 83,000 remain out of school. Overstretched infrastructure and lack of space are major challenges. SDC will continue to support the Ministry of Education (MoE) in non-structural rehabilitation of schools accommodating Syrian refugees, including water and sanitation facilities, contributing to increase the accommodating capacities. The project will also include an awareness component addressing maintenance issues.


Swiss experts to UN agencies in the frame of the regional crises in the Middle East

24.02.2016 - 31.12.2017

The Middle East is currently contending with two L3 crises:  Iraq and Syria. Over 20 million people need humanitarian assistance: refugees, lDPs, host communities. In line with the Swiss Cooperation Strategy 2015-

2018, SHA experts provide technical support & strategic advice to UN agencies, contributing to a strengthened, coordinated response. The deployed experts allow Switzerland to expand its operational engagement and humanitarian presence in the region, including in contexts where SDC has no office (Iraq and Syria).


Reduce vulnerability in Jordan in the context of water scarcity and increasing food/energy demand

01.12.2015 - 30.11.2018

The rationale of this project is to reduce vulnerability of rural Jordanian and other disadvantaged communities in the context of water scarcity for agriculture, increased demand for food and livelihood provision from growing populations, and rising energy demand. To this end, the project pilots a three-pronged, community­ based approach, combining water harvesting, conjunctive use of groundwater, and solar power for lifting irrigation water.


Mitigating the impact of the Syrian refugee crisis on Jordanian vulnerable host communities

01.05.2015 - 31.12.2017

Tensions are increasing between the Jordanian host population and Syrian refugees. This project will put local organisations and municipalities in a better position to address these rising tensions. Thanks to this project, a funding mechanism will be set up to support projects which will increase social cohesion and acceptance between host and refugee populations.


Decent work for migrants in the Middle East

01.01.2015 - 31.12.2018

The Middle East attracts high numbers of migrants from South/South East Asia. While migrants constitute an important contribution to the Gulf State economies and the development of their countries of origin, they remain vulnerable to exploitation and abuse along the migration chain. This programme builds on gains made during its first phase and seeks to improve legal frameworks and their implementation in favour of decent work conditions for migrants. The approach combines operational support to migrants, capacity building of national and civil society actors with regional and global policy dialogue efforts.


Ambulances for Jordan Civil Defence (Mixed Financing Line II)

05.10.2010 - 31.03.2018

The project aims at improving the ambulance services of Jordan Civil Defense by substantially increasing the fleet of modern paramedical ambulances, by training the paramedical staff along the emergency intervention chain and by introducing a comprehensive quality assurance system.

Objeto 1 – 9 de 9

  • 1