Rethinking Sanitation Systems: Resource Recovery and Safe Reuse (RR&R)

Project completed

Building on the research results of the first phase, this project will directly address the combined challenges of making resource recovery and reuse a viable business opportunity and implementing Resource Recovery and Safe Reuse (RR&R) businesses in Kampala and Lima. At the same time the project will reduce public health and environmental risks associated with reuse and pave the way for scaling up Sanitation Safety Planning (SSP) at the global level.

Country/region Topic Period Budget
Employment & economic development
Drinking water and basic sanitation (WASH) (til 2016)
Water sanitation
Water sector policy
SME development
01.05.2015 - 31.12.2020
CHF  3’340’000

Recovering water, nutrients and energy from liquid and solid wastes generated in sanitation systems is a high priority where resources for agricultural production are already limited. At present, resource recovery is happening mostly unplanned and is neglecting public health and environmental issues.


To promote and implement globally and at commercial scale recovery and safe reuse models of resources generated from liquid and solid waste streams in order to promote food security, cost recovery in the sanitation sector, and livelihood opportunities, while safeguarding public health and the environment in poor urban and peri-urban areas in developing countries.  

Target groups

Direct beneficiaries include: (1) small and medium enterprises in the sanitation-agriculture-energy production interface (2) urban population of Kampala and Lima, especially the most exposed household members suffering from poor sanitation and exposed to health risks (3) Direct users of SSPs: public and private sector and authorities at various scales.

Medium-term outcomes

  1. The implementation of economically viable business models increases the scale and viability of productive reuse of water, nutrients, organic matter and energy from domestic and agro-industrial waste streams.
  2. To safeguard public health in the context of rapidly expanding use of wastewater, excreta and greywater in agriculture and aquaculture and protect vulnerable groups from specific health risks associated with this pattern of agricultural development.


Results from previous phases:  

  • Potential business models with Decision Support System on where to use them were identified
  • City specific feasibility studies for the implementation of various business models prepared
  • Assessment of health and environmental risks and mitigation measures for waste reuse cases/models
  • Sanitation Safety Plan (SSP) Manual tested and published globally
  • Educational and training materials on RR&R business models

Directorate/federal office responsible SDC
Credit area Development cooperation
Project partners Contract partner
International or foreign NGO
Private sector
Swiss Academic and Research Institution
United Nations Organization (UNO)
  • Other international or foreign NGO North
  • Other UN Organisation
  • Foreign private sector North

Budget Current phase Swiss budget CHF    3’340’000 Swiss disbursement to date CHF    3’045’533 Total project since first phase Budget inclusive project partner CHF   7’600’000
Project phases

Phase 2 01.05.2015 - 31.12.2020   (Completed)

Phase 1 01.12.2011 - 30.06.2015   (Completed)