The Horn of Africa is affected by 3 long-lasting conflicts: the fragmentation of Somalia, the sensitive separation of Sudan and South Sudan, and the unresolved dispute between Ethiopia and Eritrea. The Somali sub-conflict system is at the core of regional fragility, as it has strong regional impacts in the adjoining regions of South-Eastern Ethiopia and North-Eastern Kenya, and beyond. Substantial parts of the population experience political exclusion and economic marginalisation, sharpened by chronic and cyclic food insecurity with high climate variability and acute droughts in the (semi-) arid lands, creating a protracted humanitarian crisis. Local conflicts over equitable access and share of natural resources are intensifying. Throughout the region, the population suffers from a very high burden of diseases, with the world’s highest maternal and child mortality rates. Mines and explosive remnants of war further diminish opportunities for earning a living and leave behind victims long after the armed conflicts. These combined challenges lead to forced migration and high numbers of refugees/IDPs, most of whom are hosted by neighbouring countries.