International Human Rights Conventions

Human rights protect human beings and their dignity in war and in peacetime.  These rights are protected under international law and it is the duty of states to ensure they are respected, protected and fulfilled.  To this end, the United Nations has developed a body of binding conventions, all stemming from the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

There are basically three distinct types of human rights:

  • civil and political rights, e.g. the right to life, peaceful assembly and religious freedom
  • economic, social and cultural rights, e.g. the right to work, to education, and to social security
  • rights of the third generation, e.g. the right to development and to a clean and healthy environment

United Nations Conventions

Principal United Nations conventions on human rights:

UN Covenant I

The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) covers human rights in the economic, social and cultural spheres.

UN Covenant II

The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) contains important guarantees for the protection of civil and political rights.

Racial discrimination

The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) is explicitly directed at discrimination based on race, colour, descent, as well as national and ethnic origin. 

Discrimination against women

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) sets out in concrete terms the prohibition of discrimination of women in all stages of life.

Torture

The Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT) obliges the states parties to prevent and punish acts of torture.

Rights of the Child

The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) provides a comprehensive guarantee of the human rights of children and young people under 18 years of age.

People with disabilities

The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) ensures that people with disabilities enjoy all human rights and participate in public, economic and social life.

Enforced disappearance

The International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance (CPED) aims to punish and combat the grave human rights violation of enforced disappearance.

Migrant workers

The aim of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (ICRMW) is to protect migrant workers and their families. 

Unlike the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the above conventions are binding on states parties. Switzerland has ratified all except the last.

Council of Europe Cconventions

The principal Council of Europe conventions on human rights are:

  • The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms ECHR (CETS no. 005) and its Additional Protocols
    Switzerland ratified the ECHR and Additional Protocol 6, 7 and 13. It signed Additional Protocol 1 in 1976.
  • The European Social Charter and the European Social Charter (Revised)
    Switzerland signed the original 1961 European Social Charter in 1976. The Federal Council adopted a report on the compatibility of the revised European Social Charter with Swiss law on 2 July 2014.
  • Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities
    Switzerland ratified the convention in 1998.
  • Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings
    Switzerland ratified the convention in 2012.
  • Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse (Lanzarote Convention)Switzerland ratified the convention in 2014.
  • Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence (Istanbul convention)
    Switzerland signed the convention in 2013.

Country reports

The principal UN conventions on human rights establish committees to monitor compliance with their provisions. They provide for a mandatory reporting procedure whereby states which have ratified the conventions submit reports to the relevant committee on the way in which they have fulfilled their human rights obligations. The committee examines the reports and formulates recommendations.